Archive for the ‘København’ Category

Gendered Voices

April 18, 2013

I går holdt jeg et innlegg på et arrangement i regi av BLUS her i København, under tittelen “Gendered Voices: Singing, Performance, and Normativity.” Jeg kannibaliserer på tidligere blogginnlegg, så for gamle lesere vil det være litt resirkulering. Men her er manuset:

(Yesterday I gave a talk entitled “Gendered Voices: Singing, Performance, and Normativity” at BLUS here in Copenhagen. I am cannibalizing on some earlier blogposts, so for old readers there are elements of recycling, but here is the manus):

Gendered Voices: Singing, Performance, and Normativity

Imagine you are Justin Bieber, you sit in a concert hall for the MTV Video Music Awards, and suddenly a talkative Italian man comes on stage, smoking, being kind of obnoxious, talking about how it is to be Lady Gaga’s boyfriend. Then the man – Jo Calderone – gets to the piano and performs Lady Gaga’s “Yoü and I.” The performance is, of course, in one perspective at least, Lady Gaga in drag as her male alter ego Jo Calderone. “Yoü and I” was at that time the latest single from Lady Gaga, and here even Brian May – from Queen – comes on stage to do the guitar solo. The reference to Justin Bieber, however, is not a coincidence. He is in the hall, and the camera pans in on him at one time in the performance. And, not to ridicule him, but he looks like he’s got no clue about what is happening. And the question, of course, is: “do we?” “Do we know or understand what is happening here?” Let us see the clip, and I’ve decided not to go into the long monologue Jo is delivering first, but we go straight to the music:

Of course, Justin Bieber is a nice guy, and he sits politely watching the performance. He can still stand in for us, in the sense that we too watch the performance as it takes place. The question is how we respond to it – intellectually and emotionally. Personally I had a big smile on my face the first time I heard and saw it, which probably comes from having been pretty obsessed with Lady Gaga at that time. Obsessed in the sense of signing up on facebook to the events when she released her new videos, watching them as they were shown for the first time, following her – obviously – on facebook and twitter, being updated by LadyGagaNews on twitter and google alert, and much more. And remind you, I am in a position to call that “work.” I am, among other things, a popular music scholar, and so keeping myself updated is of course necessary. The other thing making me smile was, however, her particular performance. I had heard the song, seen the video – which is pretty awesome too – and I’d seen Jo Calderone’s pictures from the Japanese Vogue. I even followed Jo Calderone on twitter. In other words, I was willing to go along with the construction of Jo Calderone as a person in his own right, not simply Lady Gaga in drag. That is also, one could argue, what is taking place in the video to “Yoü and I,” giving that we can see them both in the same images. Going along with this construction is obviously something we do imaginary, but it can tell us something about how we relate to pop-stars (and film-stars as well). It is not “the real person” we are interested in (obsessed with), but the star – a character, and actor, a performer. We buy into this story, leaving “real life” behind.

Remember when we were kids and saw something scary on the television and parents said, “It’s only a movie”? That’s what I am talking about, but that statement is obviously stupid. There is no such thing as “only” a movie. Movies are what they are, and we immerse ourselves in them. We live in the movies; we do, for a short time-span, live as if the movie was the world. This “as if” mode is central for the life of the imagination. One some level we know that it is not real, but we buy into it, in what related to theater and opera is often called suspension of disbelief. Our disbelief, our “it is only a movie,” is suspended, and we take what we see for the real thing, or perhaps even for something better than the real thing. This is how fiction works; it is real. And then, probably, we reenter that other reality where we can reflect claiming that, well, it was only a movie. But back to Jo Calderone’s performance. There is an interesting dimension I haven’t commented upon yet, at least not explicitly. What is happening is that we watch a man (let’s go along with the character as the real thing), and then he goes to the piano and starts to sing. What do we hear? Are we hearing a man singing, or are we hearing a woman’s voice coming from a male body? Or what? This is, as my title today makes clear, the focal point of this talk, and I hope you will all go along with me in taking as a point of departure that we don’t really know. In other words, that our expectancies about what a man or a woman is supposed to sound like is not necessarily a given. That we really try to question these presuppositions. This, obviously, has to do with the performance as an audio-visual event, and this goes both for music videos, concerts, tv-transmissions, and so on. Listening to the song alone, on the other hand, opens for other questions. The question of audio-visuality is of interest for popular music in that, not least in today’s media-world, the images are everywhere and perhaps even as important as the sound. We still think of music as a sonic event, though, with the images as a supplement, but this is hardly how it works. And we can even see that in the use of the term “image” – “image” is how the artists choose to present themselves, or how they are presented to us by some kind of “management.” And in the case of Lady Gaga, for example, that “image” is clearly built equally much – if not more – on visuality as it is on aurality or the sonic. One could even make an argument that it is not the music that is the most important dimension of the phenomenon known as “Lady Gaga,” but that the music is one component in the construction of this phenomenon. And I say that both as a musicologist and as a Lady Gaga fan, implying, simultaneously, that as musicologists – but also as fans – we need to pay attention to more than the music if we are to grasp the pop star. But what if what we see and what we hear are in some kind of conflict? This is, arguably, one of the dimensions of drag, especially related to how we perceive the voice. And thus it is time to introduce the notion of normativity, and I want to do that from the point of view of a musicologist first, that is, the normativity of voices. Seeing my title you’ve probably been thinking that this is about gender normativity, and it is, but I am particularly occupied with the gendered voice, and thus to something we could call “voice normativity.” Working with different theories of construction of gender I have discussed this with vocal coaches and song teachers. And most of them claim, immediately, that as soon as we are grown up there is female voices and male voices, and that can never really change. We divide them – in the world of classical music into soprano and alto, tenor and bass (with some other possibilities in-between – mezzo, baritone) – but the gendering of the voices, as heard, are in a sense set in stone. What I find interesting here is a couple of dimensions. Firstly, we are used to think of gender as somewhat of a performance or construction. When I say “we” here, I obviously say too much, as I include you into this “we” even while not knowing whether you would agree with me or not. But let us say, for the sake of argument, that we are in agreement that gender is a kind of a performance. And I will come back to say some more about what that might imply in a short while. Secondly, agreeing on gender being a performance might lead us to ask similar questions about sex. And no, I am not talking about performing the act of sex now, that is, not sex as action or something happening, not about the verb so to speak. As you know, in Danish we only have one word covering both gender and sex – køn – and when trying to distinguish between the two English words there is a tendency to say “social” for gender and “biological” for sex, i.e., there is a tendency here to say that the one thing is a cultural one whereas the other is a natural one. Do we accept this? Is it at all possible to argue against it? I am inclined to say that “culture” is involved in understanding what both these categories mean, and that this is, then, also the case with sex and biology. That is to say, that how we understand “nature” is to a large extend a cultural dimension. I am not, then, saying that “nature” doesn’t exist; I am not saying that “nature” is a cultural construct, but I am saying that how we understand nature – and thus biology and sex – is a part of our cultural context and background. And this has everything to do with how we categorize and talk about this thing called “sex.” So then, back to the question above, is “sex” a performance (and no, still not the verb I am talking about). The reason for stressing these two questions is, as will hopefully become clear, related to the voice, and in particular the singing voice. Are voices natural? Are there a clear-cut divide between “male voices” and “female voices” in the same sense as the classical theory about sexual difference, where biology is understood as found, incarnated so to speak, into human beings being “male” or “female” (and without any other categories, or the “all-of-the-above” box to make your cross in). And this, then, deals with how we hear voices. How we here voices as always already gendered, and how we can challenge such a gendered hearing. And, as already said, one way such a challenge presents itself is in drag, or, to take an even less loaded term, how the singer presents her or himself visually.

In my own work I have been dealing with a phenomenon from the history of opera showing this brilliantly. I am, of course, talking about the castrato. The castrati were men who had been operated upon as young boys, so that their voice did not break as they reached puberty. Their bodies, obviously, continued to grow, but that one dimension of so-called natural maturity did not happen. And so, they had high-pitched voices throughout their lives. This, however, did not mean that they only sang female roles in the opera – although they did that as well – they sang both male and female roles, and we have to assume that whether or not the characters were supposed to be seen (and heard) as male or female was obvious from their dress, from their texts, from the lyrics, in other words, from their performance. Unfortunately we cannot really experience the castrato today. The castrato business went out of fashion in the early 18th century, and we are thus left with the power of imagination here as well. With the exception, however, of two particular cases. Firstly, we Gactually have a recording. It is not from the early 18th century, of course, but from the early 20th, and it is not very well sung. It is, however, the closest thing we have to a “real” castrato. I am talking about Alessandro Moreschi, who was recorded in the Vatican in 1902 and 1904, but at that point was too old to really shine. He had not, either, been an opera singer, but a singer in the Vatican, so we can assume that his vocal training had never really tried to make him shine as a castrato-star either. And, finally, the technological equipment to record his singing had – from the point of view of today – severe limits. That said, something about his voice still speaks to us today, in this swan-song of the castrato.

The other exception is even more related to technology, and is taken from the film Farinelli – about one of the most famous castratos in history. To make his voice in the movie two singing voices were morphed together in the studio, and we thus hear a technologically produced voice that is a mixture between a soprano and a counter-tenor (a high-pitched male), so that the pitch of the voice is kind-of female and the timbre kind-of male. In addition, the movie presents him as a peacock – literally, no metaphors here – in a baroque setting, meaning that it is open for interpretation whether we see/hear him as “strange” or queer or not. This scene I am to show, inscribes him into a pretty heteronormative relation, however, as it leads to a sexual relationship between Farinelli and a German countess. In other words, he might be cut, but he can still perform his heterosexual duties – or so the film leads us to believe. That castrati could perform – sexually – is a historical fact, however, a version of safe sex given that no semen were produced, but this does not mean that “suspicions” of same-sex relationships were not part of the discourse around them.

The historical example of the castrato leads some other important questions, having to do with how gender and sexuality have been understood throughout the years, that is, in a more distant past. The history, not only of gender-roles, but also about the images and understandings of gender, the history of sexuality, including challenges to what is “natural” from particular points of view. This is important work, in so many academic disciplines, and is at the same time related to comparisons between different cultural understandings of gender and sexuality. To make this point blunt: what if your view on gender and sexuality were yours alone? That is of course never the case, but it is often the case that it is a minor collective or community having particular views on these issues. Not only that in the past human beings behaved differently, or that in “foreign” cultures human relationships are differently, but also in different strata of our own community, the last known as for example subcultures, where the subculture has different practices and values than the mainstream culture, but it could also be related to religious understandings within a more or less secular community. If I call a castrato singer “queer” I obviously mix two different historical periods into one sentence: firstly, the period when castrato singers existed, and secondly, the period – our period – when queer is understood as a category of “identity” (for lack of a better word). This is, as most historians would say, anachronistic – and many historians would add that that’s a bad thing. In some circumstances I would both defend and even advocate being anachronistic, and when dealing with different ways of organizing, understanding, or conceptualizing sexuality would definitely be high on my list. Not least because it could tell us something about our own context, and the limits set for understandings of sexuality today, leading to the normativity I’ve already mentioned. So far, at least, and perhaps even more substantial than that, I find it important to postpone any statement about what queer is. As we’ve learned from Judith Butler, and later scholars, gender/sex is not something one is, but something one does. I won’t go into any long discussion of this statement – except saying that it is also, in my view, severaly misunderstood – but rather point to how gender is experienced or understood or interpreted, that is to say, how we view – and in my cases also hear – gender. It is not as if queer is by necessity the right word to use in all cases, but what the question of queerness at least opens up is to open up the normativity found as a basis for so much of our everyday-life as well as popular culture. And as soon as one starts to listen for the sound of queerness, or, in my context perhaps even more notice the discrepancies between expectations and result, between prejudices – based, more often than not, on norms – and performances, then the whole field of gender and of gendered performances open up.

Interestingly enough this takes place within popular culture, even popular culture of the more mainstream kind. It perhaps used to be that queer expressions were to be found in some kind of underground or subculture scenes, and, of course, this is still the case, but it has also slipped into the mainstream, and it is interesting to reflect upon what happens then. To take one example, here is Greg Pritchard from Britain’s Got Talent (in 2009):

When Greg Pritchard comes on stage it is pretty obvious that what is expected, by the judges and the audience, is some kind of indie-rock, or shoe-gazer stuff. What is heard is a surprise, and one reason for the surprise is the discrepancies between expectations and result, but also between what is seen and what is heard. It is, as Simon says, “like a dog meowing” – in other words, almost like a trans-species expression. And this is definitely mainstream popular culture, even of the sort that lots of academics claim is unnecessary to deal with at all. It is also an international popular culture, and I want to move over to Thailand’s Got Talent (from 2011), where Bell Nuntita sings:

What we hear here – and what the audience hear – both relates to the normative understanding of voices while simultaneously undermining it. She sings two songs, the first in a “female” voice, the second in a “male” voice. I would still not call this a “gender change.” She can move between the two voices, back and forth. She thus undermines the very thought that the voice – the gendered voice – is “natural.” It makes sense, in my view, to call her voice a “trans-voice.” This is a transgendered voice, in one way or another; it is, in a particular sense, a queer voice. What is important, however, is to challenge all kinds of understandings of such a “trans” or “queer” voice as freakish. Here I am aware that I am getting into a kind of normative territory myself, and I just want to underline that. There is, however, a reason for this, and it comes out of having followed – from years now – the media discourse around another voice: the voice of Antony Hegarty – singer in Antony and the Johnsons. Antony self-identifies as a transperson, and his voice has been at the center for the reception of his music. And it is clear that there have been difficulties in finding the right words to describe it. In addition to being called androgynous, it has been described as “angelic” and “ethereal,” and Antony has also been called a “creature” as if to challenge any notion of a gendered human being. It is, then, as if the very humanity of Antony is questioned, in a language strongly echoing how the voice of the castrato (and the castrato himself) was described. I’ve written about Antony – some of it available on-line – and there is no time to go into details about his voice here. What I do want, however, is to underline a phenomenon of interest for re-learning to listen to voices: it is the duet. Listening to duets we hear the intersection of different voices – be the voices “male,” “female,” or whatever we should call them. And it becomes easier to hear and recognize these differences. It is not that it necessarily becomes easier to find the words to categorize these voices, but the importance in discussing this vocabulary becomes clearer. As one example of a duet, take Antony and Boy George doing “You Are My Sister”:

These voices are both coming from artists with a non-normative sexuality. Whether that makes their voices queer is perhaps still a question. And the answer is related to what is meant by a queer voice. What I hope to have shown, however, is that listening to the particular voices, and to their particularities, not taking any categories for granted – not “male” or “female,” but not “straight” or “queer” either – might open up for other kinds of vocal experiences. And to end related to where I begun I want to play the Eurythmics from the 1984 Grammy Awards, singing “Sweet Dreams Are Made of This.” Here Annie Lennox is in drag, sort of an Elvis-clone, and opens the question of whether we hear her voice differently than when she dressed as “herself.” This is not “the same” kind of drag as in the Lady Gaga / Jo Calderone case, but the resemblance is enough – I think – to make the case. The case of the question of gendered voices. (And yes, Boy George makes a cameo in the opening of this video – it is, after all, 1984).

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Merleau-Ponty og grammofonen

June 26, 2012

I forbindelse med Mads Walther-Hansens PhD-forsvar i går, der jeg var formann for bedømmelsesutvalget, har jeg blant annet repetert deler av Maurice Merleau-Pontys Phénomènologie de la perception (fra 1945). Walther-Hansens avhandlig her “The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space,” og Merleau-Ponty er en av teoretikerne han bruker. Muligens litt idiosynkratisk ble jeg fanget inn i jakten på gramofoner i Merleau-Pontys bok, og fant to (hvis det finnes andre vil jeg bli glad for å høre det). Den ene siterte jeg under forsvaret i går. Der beskriver Merleau-Ponty et visuelt rom, og det opptrer en grammofonspiller i naborommet. Her er sitatet (fra den engelske oversettelsen):

“When we reach the limits of the visual field, we do not pass from vision to non-vision: the gramophone playing in the next room, and not expressly seen by me, still counts in my visual field. Conversely, what we see is always in certain respects not seen: there must be hidden sides of things, and things ‘behind us’, if there is to be a ‘front’ of things, and things ‘in from of’ us, in short, perception.” (s. 323)

Det jeg synes er interessant i dette sitatet er hvordan lyden av grammofonen tilsynelatende ikke rykker Merleau-Ponty ut fra diskusjonen av et visuelt rom til fordel for et auditivt rom. Jeg tror absolutt Merleau-Ponty kan anvendes til diskusjoner av lytting og det auditive, men synes likevel det er en visuell bias i mye av det han skriver.

Det andre sitatet er mye lengre, og jeg er fortsatt ikke ferdig med å tenke på det. Her opptrer det både grammofoner, radio, og telefoner, det er stemmer og schizofrene, engler og elektrisitet. Med andre ord, mye å tenke på.

“Hallucination causes the real to disintegrate before our eyes, and puts a quasi-reality in its place, and in both these respects this phenomenon brings us back to the pre-logical bases of our knowledge and confirms what has been said about the thing and the world. The all-important point is that the patients, most of the time, discriminate between their hallucinations and their perceptions. Schizophrenics who experience tactile hallucinations of pricking or of an ‘electric current’ jump when they feel an injection of ethyl chloride or a real electric shock: ‘That time’, they say to the doctor, ‘you were the cause of it, because you are going to operate’. Another schizophrenic, who said he could see a man standing in the garden under his window, and pointed to the spot, giving a description of the man’s clothes and general bearing, was astonished when someone was actually placed in the garden at the spot in question, wearing the same clothes and in the same posture. He looked carefully, and exclaimed: ‘Yes, there is someone there, but it’s somebody else’. He would not admit to there being two men in the garden. A patient who has never entertained any doubts whatsoever about the voices which she hears, listens to similar ones played to her on the gramophone, interrupts her work, raises her head without turning round, and sees a white angel appear, as it does every time she hears her voices, but she does not count this experience among the day’s ‘voices’: for this time it is not the same thing, but a ‘direct’ voice, perhaps the doctor’s. An old woman afflicted with senile dementia, who complains of finding powder in her bed, is startled to find in reality a thin layer of toilet powder there: ‘What is this? she asks, ‘this powder is damp, the other is dry’. The subject who, in delirium tremens, takes the doctor’s hand to be a guinea pig, is immediately aware of the fact when a real guinea pig is placed in his other hand. The fact that patients so often say that someone is talking to them by telephone or radio, is to be taken precisely as expressing the morbid world is artificial, and that it lacks something needed to become ‘reality’. The voices are uncouth voices, or else voices ‘of people pretending to be uncouth’, or it may be a young man imitating an old man’s voice, or ‘as if a German were trying to talk Yiddish’. ‘It is as when a person says something to someone, but without getting as far as uttering any sound’. Do not such admissions put an end to all argument about hallucination? Since the hallucination is not a sensory content, there seems nothing for it but to regard it as a judgement, an interpretation or a belief. But although these patients do not believe in their hallucinations in the sense in which one believes in perceived objects, an intellectualist theory of hallucination is equally impossible. Alain quotes Montaigne’s words on madmen ‘who believe they see what they do not really see’. But in fact the insane do not believe they see, or, when questioned, they correct their statements on this point. A hallucination is not a judgement or a rash belief, for the same reasons which prevent it from being a sensory content: the judgement or the belief could consist only in positing the hallucination as true, and this is precisely what the patients do not do. At the level of judgement they distinguish hallucination from perception, and in any case argue against their hallucinations: rats cannot come out of the mouth and go back into the stomach. A doctor who hears voices climbs into a boat and rows towards the open sea to convince himself that no one is really talking to him. When the hallucinatory attack supervenes, the rat and the voices are still there.” (s. 389ff)

Sound???

March 8, 2012

Som jeg har skrevet om før skal jeg neste helg holde ett innlegg om Rahsaan Roland Kirk. I forarbeidet har jeg også sett filmen Sound??? fra 1966, regissert av Dick Fontaine.

Helt sentrale figurer i filmen er nettopp Roland Kirk og John Cage, og filmen setter disse to sammen. Nettopp dermed åpner det for en annen form for tenkning rundt Kirk, idet de estetiske sammenstillingene mellom avantgarde, jazz, etc., simpelthen må tenkes på ny. (Hele filmen kan ses på ubuweb). (Jeg har skrevet om filmen før, men den er verd å repetere i og med at jeg tenker videre).

The Joy of Disco

March 6, 2012

Det er mer enn gjennomsnittelig interesse for disco for tiden. Og det passer meg fint, både siden jeg underviser disco dette semesteret og siden jeg skal ha en workshop om disco under IKK Festival torsdag. I går kom det enda mer. Via Dummy fant jeg BBC dokumentaren The Joy of Disco, som på mange måter er en god historie. Selvsagt er det en historie – av mange mulige. Og selvsagt kunne man ønske andre dimensjoner tatt inn (og noen, for å være helt ærlig, som kunne vært redigert bort). Men slik er selvsagt dokumentarens betingelser. Så sett av en times tid og se gjennom. Og som Dummy skrev på sin facebook-side: Don’t ask, just dance.

Discoartikkel (egenreklame)

March 1, 2012

Jeg har skrevet en kort artikkel om disco og historiografi til Omlyd. Artikkelen, “Disco – mellem forfald og fornyelse” finnes her. Den er, på sitt vis, både knyttet til dette semesterets undervisning og til neste ukes IKK-Festival (se her), og jeg remikser noe materiale fra en tidligere post.

IKK Festival 2012

February 17, 2012

Som i fjor (se her) er det også i år IKK Festival. Årets tema er Pop, og festivalen finner sted 8. og 9. mars. Jeg har blitt spurt om å delta med en workshop, og gjør det torsdag den 8. mars under tittelen “Disco: Dans, dekadanse og drøm.” Det blir en slags remiks over semesterets discoforelesninger, og forhåpentligvis rimelig sjovt.

Med Derrida på disco

February 8, 2012

I dag begynner forelesningene i vårens undervisningsforløp om disco, som jeg har kalt “Disco-Discourse.” Når man sitter slik og forbereder seg har jeg en tendens til å finne “det samme” igjen overalt. Slik fant jeg det jeg tror er Jacques Derridas eneste referanse til disco. Den finnes i artikkelen “For the Love of Lacan,” publisert i Resistances of Psychoanalysis (utgitt på fransk i 1996 og i engelsk oversettelse i 1998). Artikkelen ble først holdt som et foredrag ved kollokviet Lacan avec les philosophes i 1990.

Derrida beskriver sine møter med Jacques Lacan, og en frihet til fortolkning Lacan har overlatt til ham, og så kommer det (i en parentes ikke mindre):

“(This didici is magnificent; I hear it in Latin, as if in the dark of a disco this time, and not a ballroom, of a disco where the old professor cannot manage to give up the combined compulsion of the future anterior and didactics: didici, I will have told you, I will have taught you.)”

Det er selvfølgelig å strekke sitatet altfor langt, men jeg kan ikke helt dy meg fra å forestille meg Derrida på disco, med eller uten Lacan. En dansende Derrida, så å si.

(Og før noen kommenterer akkurat det: Jeg vet at Derrida skriver om dans andre steder, men jeg tror dette er den eneste referansen til disco. Skulle noen finne andre vil jeg gjerne høre om det).

Disco-Discourse – prolegomena

December 19, 2011

Til våren skal jeg ha et undervisningsforløp jeg har kalt “Disco-Discourse.” Jeg har begynt å planlegge det, men er enda ikke helt ferdig. Samtidig har jeg ideer som nå – og den neste måneden – er i spill og som så vil være spred ut over 11 undervisningsganger når januar nærmer seg slutten. Den “hemmelige” tittelen for kurset er “discoens kritiske potensial,” men den er nettopp “hemmelig” fordi den er uklar. Men noen dimensjoner vil jeg vise fra.

Et utgangspunkt er fra Nelson Georges bok The Death of Rhythm & Blues (fra 1988). Der skriver han:

“But between 1976 and 1980, two musical forces combined to defunk disco and turn it into a sound of mindless repetition and lyrical idiocy that, with exceptions, overwhelmed R&B. Ironically, one factor was the musical formula of the Philly sound. […] At least the Philly disco records sounded like they were made by humans. Soon, Eurodisco invaded America, initially from Munich, and later from Italy and France. It was music with a metronomelike beat – perfect for folks with no sense of rhythm – almost inflectionless vocals, and metallic sexuality that matched the high-tech, high-sex, and low passion atmosphere of the glamorous discos that appeared in every major American city. […] The biggest star to emerge from the scene was Donna Summer, along with her producer Giorgio Moroder. Her 1976 album, Four Seasons of Love, would define the worst tendencies of Eurodisco whole at the same time making Summer – with the extravagant backing of Casablanca Records president Neil Bogan – the period’s biggest black female star.”

Når jeg leser dette kan jeg ikke hjelpe for at jeg tenker på en annen passasje, denne gangen i Kodwo Eshuns bok More Brilliant Than The Sun (fra 1998):

“Disco remains the moment when Black Music falls from the grace of gospel tradition into the metronomic assembly line. Ignoring that disco is therefore audibly where the 21st C begins, 9 out of 10 cultural crits prefer their black popculture humanist, and emphatically 19th C.”

Referansene til disco ellers i Eshuns bok er sparsomme, men dette poenget, at den tette relasjonen mellom menneske, maskin, og musikk endrer lydbildet, og peker mot det tjueførste århundret, er en gjennomgående tanke. Og den står helt klart i kontrast til Georges beklagelse over den europeiske dehumaniseringen.

I tillegg til motsetningen mellom sort og hvit og mellom USA og Europa, er det også motsetninger knyttet til kjønn og seksualitet på spill. George skriver, bare noen linjer etter ovenstående sitat:

“Disco’s movers and shakers were not record executives but club deejays. Most were gay men with a singular attitude toward American culture, black as well as white. They elevated female vocalists like Summer, Gloria Gaynor, Diana Ross, Loleatta Hollaway, Melba Morre, and Grace Jones to diva status, while black male singers were essentially shunned.”

Musikalsk er det her også mulig å lese en slags motsetning mellom disco på den ene siden og soul og funk på den andre. Spørsmålet er hvor skarpt et slikt skille kan settes. Men det er interessant hvordan George tilsynelatende hevder at homoseksuelle dj’er framhever kvinnelige vokalister og bortprioriterer mannlige.

“So the new dance music inspired by the inventions of Gamble and Huff, came to celebrate a hedonism and androgyny that contradicted their patriarchal philosophy.”

Motsetninger til patriarkatet, feiring av hedonisme og androgynitet, homoseksuelle dj’er og sorte kvinnelige divaer – disse dimensjonene åpner for kulturelle kontekster som går langt ut over den gamle kritikken av discoen. Her åpner det seg en mengde muligheter for å lese musikk innenfor kulturelle og politiske kontekster. En av de første tekstene jeg vil legge opp for de studerende er Richard Dyers “In Defence of Disco” (første gangen publisert i Gay Left: A Gay Socialist Journal, Nr. 8, sommeren 1979) – hele nummeret kan finnes i pdf her. Han begynner med å hevde at han alltid har likt den gale musikken, for siden å forklare hvorfor han nå vil forsvare discoen:

“All my life I’ve liked the wrong music. I never liked Elvis and rock ‘n’ roll; I always preferred Rosemary Clooney. And since I became a socialist, I’ve often felt virtually terrorised by the prestige of rock and folk on the left. How could I admit to two Petula Clark L.P.s in the face of miners’ songs from the North East and the Rolling Stones? I recovered my nerve partially when I came to see show biz type music as a key part of gay culture, which, whatever its limitations, was a culture to defend. And I thought I’d really made it when turned on to Tamla Motown, sweet soul sounds, disco. Chartbusters already, and I like them! Yet the prestige of folk and rock, and now punk and (rather patronizingly, I think) reggae, still holds sway. It’s not just that people whose politics I broadly share don’t like disco, they manage to imply that it is politically beyond the pale to like it. It’s against this attitude that I want to defend disco (which otherwise, of course, hardly needs any defence).”

Dyers artikkel fortsetter og diskuterer discoens forbindelser til erotisme, romantikk, og materialisme, og åpner for en mengde forbindelser som peker i retning av hvor jeg vil ta kurset. I tillegg, selvsagt, til mer gjennomgående diskusjoner av musikken i mer snever forstand. Men mer om det senere.

Om grammofonologi

September 8, 2011

Dette semesteret har jeg et undervisningsforløp jeg har kalt “Om grammofonologi.” Tittelen spiller selvfølgelig på Jacques Derridas De la grammatologie (1967 – engelsk oversettelse 1976), men Derridas bok blir nok først og fremst en inspirasjon for meg selv. Samtidig, de diskusjoner Derridas bok kan tas som eksempel på er også relevante for en diskusjon om grammofonen, om enn man kunne tenke seg at endringen i teknologisk medium – fra skrift/tale til lyd/skrift (fonograf) – samtidig dreier perspektivene noe. Diskusjonen av lydteknologier er for meg også knyttet til et bredere perspektiv på auditiv kultur, der altså musikken blir én form for lyd blant flere. Framveksten av ulike former for studier av det auditive eller soniske har pågått en stund, men har langt i fra den samme utbredelsen som studier av visuelle kulturer. Dette synes jeg er interessant, men jeg tenker også at studiene av visuell kultur burde kunne oversettes til auditiv kultur. Her er jeg særlig inspirert av Friedrich Kittlers Optische Medien (1999 – engelsk oversettelse 2010), en bok jeg gjerne vil sette sammen med hans tidligere Grammophon, Film, Typewriter (1986 – engelsk oversettelse 1999). Ser man den siste tittelen som referanser henholdsvis til lyd, bilde, og skrift, skulle man kunne se muligheter for å la de tre feltene prege hverandre i en intermedial diskurs. Samtidig åpner det også for diskusjoner av det mediespesifikke, om enn Kittler i Optische Medien synes å hevde at computeren, som et slags metamedium, tar over for dem alle.

Endelig er forelesningene for meg inspirert av Adornos “Die Form der Schallplatte” (fra 1934 – engelsk oversettelse her), og ikke minst hans henvisning til en “grammofonens forhistorie.”

“Wenn man späterhin, anstatt ‘Geistesgeschichte’ zu treiben, den Stand des Geistes von der Sonnenuhr menschlicher Technik ablesen sollte, dann kann die Vorgeschichte des Grammophons eine Wichtigkeit Erlangen, welche die mancher berühmter Komponisten vergessen macht.”

At andre historier enn de som er knyttet til komponister er viktige, og at man kan få en annen – og ikke mindre viktig – musikkhistorie ved å fokusere på teknikk og teknologi synes selvsagt. Samtidig er det noe historiografisk interessant i å skrive en grammofonens forhistorie; det vil på en måte bli en historie som tar grammofonen som hendelse som utgangspunkt, og derfra skriver historien. Det er med andre ord en historie med et veldig spesifikt utgangspunkt. Det synes jeg er uproblematisk i seg selv, men jeg synes det åpner for noen interessante dimensjoner rundt historieskrivning. Er forholdet til grammofonen i dag en effekt av over 100 års grammofonhistorie? Er det utviklingen innenfor digitale medier som gjør at man vender seg mot eldre medier, i en eller annen form for mediearkeologisk aktivitet? Slike, og lignende, spørsmål, vil jeg diskutere med studentene det kommende semester. Og jeg vil oppdatere bloggen om temaet jevnlig og håper på en enda bredere diskusjon på den måten.

Og, til slutt, her er et filmklipp fra 1927 av Thomas Alva Edison, som forteller hvordan han sang “Mary Had a Little Lamb” i sin første fonograf tilbake i 1877:

Arguments from the Future

May 7, 2011

Torsdag presenterte jeg et paper med tittelen “Politics of Frequencies: Sound, Technology, Vibration” (se her). Jeg må nok innrømme at manuskriptet ikke var helt ferdig (en gang lærer jeg muligens), men jeg tror da jeg fikk gjennom et slags argument og fikk antydet hvilken retning jeg tenker det skal utvikle seg. Og slik sett er jeg godt fornøyd.

Jeg begynte med å spille kode9 og the Spaceapes “Sine of the Dub” fra 2004 (som jeg også har postet tidligere), i utgaven fra Memories of the Future (fra 2006, der bare med tittelen “Sine”):

Det er en cover av Princes “Sign ‘O’ The Times,” og med omskrivelsen fra sign til sine, tenker jeg at det skal kunne beskrives som en trigonometrisk cover (fra tegn til sinus, så å si), noe som så skulle kunne tenkes sammen med Steve Goodmans betegnelse, i Sonic Warfare, av “sensual mathematics.” Her er selvsagt sensual knyttet til lyden, og ikke minst til hvordan bassen åpner låten, og gir den en romlighet som nesten er av en annen verden.

I forhold til slike argumenter ble det også interessant for meg med noen dimensjoner knyttet til å arbeide med samtidskultur. Og i stor grad ble jeg minne på hvordan samtidskulturen nærmest er i en kontinuerlig utveksling med innspill. Slik ble en artikkel fra onsdag, i The Guardian sentral for meg, der kode9 og the Spaceape blir spurt om nettopp denne Prince-coveren. Og Spaceape sier:

“There’s so much space in our version; it really is just you, me and the bass.”

Nettopp hvordan bassen bidrar til å skape rom er sentralt for mitt argument, og det handler selvsagt også om hvordan de dype frekvensene bidrar i musikkopplevelsen.

Da jeg satt og hørte på presentasjonen før meg kom det så inn en twitter-melding fra Dan Hancox:

“I tried to write about post-horizontal warfare, urban sonix, and the new kode9 album all at once. I may have failed.”

Og med referanse til artikkelen “Kode9, aka Steve Goodman, goes viral with latest sonic weapon,” fra The National. Det er en riktig god artikkel, som jeg anbefaler, men det som var ekstra morsomt var at den var datert 6 mai, altså dagen etter at jeg holde innlegget mitt. Dermed fikk jeg til i presentasjonen og vise til sitere en publikasjon som enda ikke offisielt var publisert. Det jeg synes er det mest interessante sitatet i den artikkelen handler om forholdet mellom tekst, atmosfære, og musikk på kode9 & the Spaceapes siste plate, Black Sun. Med fokus på noen av sporene skriver Hancox:

“The synths seem to suggest that we humans are a race infected, perhaps by technology, perhaps by something else: together with Spaceape’s lyrics, we know we’re not in a good place. Yet the house beats send a different message. The gut response to this trio of tracks is ‘something definitely isn’t right here – so why do I find myself really wanting to dance?'”

Mellom synthlyder og beats, innenfor et dystopisk univers, kommer ønsket om å danse. Dystopisk dans, muligens, men like vel. Jeg synes dette er en god beskrivelse av en form for dobbelthet på Black Sun, og skal tenke videre i forhold til det (jeg skal holde et nytt innlegg om tre uker innenfor det samme universet).

Men også, i torsdagens innlegg fikk jeg altså referert både til en avis fra dagen før og en avis fra dagen etter. Øyeblikket ble slik, bokstavelig talt, rammet inn av fortiden og framtiden, i en slags konfigurasjon, som ble tankefull for meg.

(Ellers fikk jeg også oppleve live-twitter knyttet til innlegget mitt, og det er vel verd en fortsettelse. Akademiske konferanser vil forhåpentligvis endre seg langs disse teknologiske linjene.)